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英検1級 英作文ライティング 過去問+予想問題トピックまとめ

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英検1級の英作文の過去問と予想問題のトピックと模範解答をまとめました。

原則以下のテンプレートで作成しております。

Introduction  Some people say that 自分の意見の反対. However I think that 自分の意見 for the following three reasons.
Main Body1The first reason is that 〜.
Main Body2The second reason is that 〜.
Main Body3The third(finall) reason is that 〜.
ConclusionFor the three reasons mentioned above, I think we can say with confidence that 自分の意見(結論).
英検1級エッセイ テンプレート パターン1
Introduction   Some people say that 自分の意見の反対. However I think that 自分の意見 for the following three reasons.
Main Body1First, ~
Main Body2Second,~
Main Body3Third(Finally), ~
ConclusionTo conclude, I think 自分の意見 (結論)
英検1級エッセイ テンプレート パターン2

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 遺伝子工学は将来の社会にいい影響をもたらすか?

Agree or disagree: Genetic engineering will have a positive influence on society in the future

 

 Some people say that genetic engineering is harmful to our society because of its ethical issues. However, I think it will have a positive influence on society in the future for the following three reasons.

 First, this technology can treat diseases that are not curable. Even though our current medical technology is well developed, there are some diseases caused by genetic problems that do not have any treatment. Recently genetic engineering can correct genetic problems that patients have when they are born.   

 Second, it can increase our food sources. Genetically modified crops are now common in many countries to increase cultivation because these crops are durable against pests and some diseases caused by bad weather. In the future, further developed genetic technology can increase the amount of cultivation and solve food shortages in developing countries. 

Third, genetic technology eradicates local disease in some countries. For example, Southeast Asia and African countries have been suffering from Malaria caused by mosquitoes for a long time. Genetically controlled mosquitoes that cannot reproduce is the solution to wipe out these fatal diseases.  

For the three reasons mentioned above, I think we can say with confidence that genetic engineering is quite beneficial to our society in the future. The governments have to subsidize medical companies to accelerate these technologies.

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製作中の薬
英検1級英作文サンプル 遺伝子工学は将来の社会にいい影響をもたらすか?

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個人のプライバシーは現代社会で守ることが出来るか

Can individual privacy be protected in the modern world?

Some people say that recently, individual privacy can be protected because compared to previous times, people tend to be indifferent to other people. However, I think modern technologies and harsh business competitions possibly invade our privacy and our privacy can’t be protected.

First, the internet easily exposes our life to the public. The Internet connects our lives daily, and it is common that private information, which is unpleasant, can be easily exposed, especially on SNS. This is often caused by the lack of internet literacy of users and more SNS is widely used, more security issues will happen.

Second, surveillance cameras can collect our information unknowingly. Nowadays, there are a lot of surveillance cameras not only at the entrance of convenience stores, but also in cars called “drive recorder”. These cameras have possibly got our information through images. It is undeniable that our information from these cameras might be illegally used.

Third, customer information may be sold. It is common to make a lot of accounts on the internet. Many corporations have customer information through the internet and due to severe competition between companies, they will sell customer information to make money. It is impossible for authorities to check all these illegal acts.

For the three reasons mentioned above I think that individual privacy cannot be protected in the modern world. Strict regulation will be required to prevent private information from being invaded.     

関連文章
読書
英検1級英作文サンプル 個人のプライバシーは現代社会で守ることが出来るか

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経済制裁は有効な外交政策か?

Are economic sanctions a useful foreign-policy tool?

Some people say that economic sanctions are quite effective and have solved diplomatic problems. However, I think this is not a useful foreign-policy tool. Rather, it will easily exacerbate international relationships and possibly may cause chaos for the following three reasons.

First, economic sanctions have not worked. For example, the U.S. has applied strong sanctions against North Korea for more than a decade because of its development of nuclear weapons and missiles. However, North Korea conducted several nuclear bomb tests and missile tests while being sanctioned. 

Second, economic sanctions can hit ordinary people who have nothing to do with diplomacy. In many cases, economic sanctions are used to target the governments of target countries. However, as economic sanctions become harder, the governments exploit their citizens and innocent people are more likely to struggle to live. 

Third, economic sanctions aggravate the international relationship irreversibly and often result in war. For example, pacific war between Japan and the U.S. was caused by the sanctions against Japan. That eventulated in the huge casualties of both sides.

For the three reasons mentioned above, I think we can say with confidence that economic sanctions are not an effective way to solve problems and are not useful. Instead, international dialogue should be more needed.

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国際連盟
英検1級英作文サンプル 2021年1回経済制裁は有効な外交政策か?

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グローバル化は世界に良い影響を与えるか?

Agree or disagree: Globalization is a positive force in today's world

Some people say that globalization is a positive force in today’s world because it stimulates the world’s economy by optimizing each industry. However, I think it is rather harmful and its demerit causes not only economic decline but also conflicts for the following three reasons.

  First, globalization makes it harder for people in developed countries to find their jobs. As our world becomes globalized, corporations can easily move their factories and suppliers to developing countries and hire low-cost laborers there. As a result, in advanced countries, the number of people without jobs will increase. That has an enormously negative effect on the economy.

  Second, people in poor countries will be exploited by big companies from rich countries. Big companies try to minimize their cost to get higher profit as much as possible by using a global workforce without taking work conditions into consideration. As a result, citizens in poor countries must work in bad work conditions. That is not good for the economy there neither.

  Finally, globalization causes conflicts. As the world becomes more connected by globalization. People easily move and live-in other countries. This will lead to the condition where people who are different races, believe different religions and have different cultures live together. In such a circumstance, it is highly likely that minorities will be discriminated against by the majority and conflicts will occur. 

  To conclude, I think that globalization is not beneficial to our society.

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地球儀と空
英検1級英作文サンプル グローバル化は世界に良い影響を与えるか?

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人口増加は将来の人類の脅威になるのか

Agree or disagree: Global overpopulation is a serious threat to the future of humankind

Some people say that advanced technology can easily solve problems caused by global overpopulation in the future. However, I don’t think that is possible and rather, it is a serious threat to the future humankind for the following three reasons. 

First, it can cause severe food and water shortage especially in developing countries. Now in poor countries like Africa and the Middle East, people are struggling to get food and water. Furthermore in those countries, the population is rapidly increasing and the situation will deteriorate.

Second, “ climate change” can worsen the situation. Because of global warming, the world's temperature  continues to increase. Due to climate change, the world will experience extreme weather such as droughts and floods. Farm will become barren wastes. As a result, the global supply of food is likely to diminish.  

Finally, our advanced technology can’t find solutions to the above issues. In order to solve it, developed countries have done a lot of things such as making farms in deserts and developing space technology to find places where people can live. However, those efforts have not  succeeded yet and it is likely that it will take a long time. 

For the three reasons mentioned above, I think we can say with confidence that increasing population in the future will be a serious threat and governments of advanced countries have to focus on the problem rather than seek their own prosperity. 

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人込み
英検1級英作文サンプル 人口増加は将来の人類の脅威になるのか

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アジアの国々との関係改善をすべきか

Agree or disagree: Improving relations with other Asian nations should be a priority for the Japanese government

Some people say that Japan should improve relations with other Asian nations such as South Korea, North Korea, and China. However, I think that is not the Japanese government’s priority. Rather, our nation’s priority should be the relationship with the U.S. and so on.

First, it is impossible to have good relationships with non-democratic countries. One of communist party’s main purposes is to destroy capitalism. China and North Korea are not only communist countries but also countries dominated by one political group or a dictator. Their animosity toward Japan is caused by the governments as Communists” not people’s decision. It is not worth improving relationships with them unless their government's diplomatic policy is made by their citizens.

Second, it is just a waste of time to try to alleviate tension between Japan and South Korea. Japan has been supporting South Korea for a long time to maintain a good relationship with them. However, recent tension is caused by South Korea’s acts. To make relationships normal, Japan should not do anything for South Korea.

Third, prioritizing our allies is most important to protect Japan. For over seventy years, Japan has been prosperous because the U.S. has protected Japan and Japan could use their money for its economy rather than its defense. As China’s military power increases, we will have to bolster our alliance such as the U.S.

To concede, I disagree with the idea of improving relations with Asian countries.

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アメリカ国旗
英検1級英作文サンプル アジアの国々との関係改善をすべきか

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化石エネルギーは再生エネルギーに置き換わるか?

Can renewable energy sources replace fossil fuels?

Some people say that renewable energy sources cannot replace fossil fuels because they are expensive and unstable. However, I think renewable energy can eradicate conventional energy in the future for the following three reasons.

First, governments have supported the development of alternative energy resources. Due to global warming, we are now experiencing extreme weather like floods and drought. In order to solve these problems, huge amounts of investment have flowed into research of renewable energy by governments. As a result, it is highly likely that the renewable will replace the conventional.

Second, the cost of renewable sources is declining rapidly. Recently huge scale solar panel farms and wind turbine generation factories are installed in U.S. and European countries. This leads to reduced costs of electricity. Some reports said that costs of renewable energy will become less expensive than that of conventional energy soon.

Finally, a large battery storage was invented, and it could solve the instability of renewable energy. Now it is already common to use large battery storages to store the electricity that is generated from solar panel farms because of the development of the large size battery storage. There are no concerns that renewable energy is unstable.

For the three reasons mentioned above I can say with confidence that the renewable can replace the conventional in the future.

関連文章
油田
英検1級英作文サンプル 化石エネルギーは再生エネルギーに置き換わるか?

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宇宙探査はコストに見合う価値があるか?

Is space exploration worth the cost?

Some people say that space exploration is just a waste of money and is not used for practical life. However, I think that space-related technology is a good investment. It is useful for future generations because it reduces the effect of human activity on our planet. Also, by using it, we can learn more about space, proving how valuable the earth is.

First, it can investigate outer space in greater precision. Some scientists are searching for planets like the earth to live in. Now that our population is increasing, it is increasingly important to find earth-like planets. The exploration will contribute to this.

Second, breakthroughs in space investigation will also find new energy sources. We consume huge energy resources such as oil and coal. Some scientists predict that soon, fossil fuels will not compensate for conventional energy. Space research must be done for an alternative.

Third, knowledge of outer space is essential for us to understand future earth. For example, via space technology we now know that Venus is much hotter than the earth even though it's the same size and spins at a similar distance from the Sun. Space technology also tells us that the greenhouse effect on Venus can make it a harsh environment to inhabit. Therefore, we can see that global warming is also a huge threat for the earth. Without space knowledge, we could not understand our own planet as well as we do.

To conclude, I think space exploration is worth the cost.

関連文章
星
英検1級英作文サンプル 宇宙探査はコストに見合う価値があるか?

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伝染病は将来、より脅威となるか?

Agree or disagree: Infectious diseases will become a bigger problem in the coming decades?

Some people say that infectious diseases will not become a concern because our medical technology can easily solve them. However, I think it will become a serious problem in the future for the following three reasons.

First, globalization can easily accelerate the spread of infectious diseases.  Now the world has become connected, and people can easily move to other nations. That will possibly help the virus spread to a lot of countries at the same time. It is impossible to prevent them if the epicenter of the infection cannot stop movement of people immediately.

Second, developing countries' medical technology is so poor that a lot of patients there would die. In some countries such as Africa and southeast Asia, the Middle east and South America, the medical infrastructure is so poor that it can’t treat a lot of patients if a pandemic occurs. Without medical care, it is highly likely that patients cannot survive.

Finally, mega cities will suffer huge numbers of patients simultaneously if the virus invades them. In mega cities such as Tokyo, New York and London, a huge number of people live in narrow areas and use the subway for work. That will result in enormous infections. Even though there are a lot of hospitals there, patient numbers will likely overwhelm them.

For the three reasons mentioned above, I think we can say with confidence that infectious diseases will be a threat to our society in the future.

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伝染病
英検1級英作文サンプル 伝染病は将来、より脅威となるか?

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大量破壊兵器の禁止は達成可能な目標か?

Is a worldwide ban on weapons of mass destruction an attainable goal?

   Some people say that a worldwide ban on weapons of mass destruction is an attainable goal. However, I think that is not an attainable goal. On the other hand, it is highly likely that mass destruction weapons will spread more in the future for the following three reasons.

   First, mass destruction weapons are needed to protect countries. In order to keep independent, each country must show their ability to attack enemies such as nuclear weapons, long range ballistic missiles and so on. For example, North Korea has maintained its independence by using mass destruction weapons.

   Second, globalization can help spread information about weapons of mass destruction. Due to globalization, the world is connected. People and new technology can easily transcend borders. It is highly likely that in the future, organizations which are not regarded as countries like terrorist groups will have nuclear weapons.

   Finally, international corporations to ban mass destruction weapons is not sufficient. For example, the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons has entered into force for about forty years but some countries do not join it and it is often said that other countries, which join this treaty continue developing mass destruction technology.

   For the three reasons mentioned above, I think we can say with confidence that it is impossible to ban weapons of mass destruction.

関連文章
ミサイル
英検1級英作文サンプル 大量破壊兵器の禁止は達成可能な目標か?

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日本2020年東京オリンピックで利益を得られるか?

Agree or disagree: Japan will benefit overall from hosting the 2020 Summer Olympics

 Some people say that hosting the Olympics is beneficial for Tokyo because preparation of infrastructures and ticket payment can stimulate the economy of the capital city in Japan. However, I think it will not make a profit and rather, citizens have to support huge debts after the games for the following three reasons.

  The first reason is that preparation of the games will require nationals to pay huge tax money. To hold the Olympics, new sport facilities such as stadiums and gymnasiums are needed. These initial costs are too huge and sometimes eventually transcend the estimation.

  The second reason is that maintenance costs for above facilities will be economically burdensome on locals. For example, Nagano city has been suffering huge debts for maintenance after the Nagano Olympic Games.

  The final reason is that beneficial effects of holding international sporting events are too small to pay off all costs mentioned above. During the games, the biggest city in Japan attracts many people around the world. However, that is only temporary. After the international events, all the economic benefits will evaporate. It is difficult to fully compensate for all the preparation and maintenance costs.

  For the three reasons mentioned above, I disagree with the idea that Japan will benefit overall from hosting the 2020 Summer Olympics. People in Tokyo will suffer huge debts for the Tokyo Games in the future.

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オリンピック
英検1級英作文サンプル 日本2020年東京オリンピックで利益を得られるか?

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 日本はアメリカとの関係を見直すべき?

Should Japan rethink its relationship with the United States?

Some people say that Japan should rethink its relationship with the United States because Japan should focus on the relationship with China. However, I think Japan does not need to rethink its relationship with the United States. Rather, Japan should bolster its alliance with the U.S. for the following three reasons. 

 First, prioritizing our allies is most important for Japan. For over seventy years, Japan has been prosperous because the U.S. has protected Japan and Japan could use their money for its economy rather than its defense. Even though the cost for military troops in the U.S. is getting higher recently, its importance is also getting bigger.

 Second, it is impossible to have good relationships with non-democratic countries such as China and North Korea. One of communist party’s main purposes is to destroy capitalism. Recently, China and North Korea apparently show their animosity toward Japan, enhancing military activities targeting Japan. 

 Third, advanced technology in the U.S. can help Japanese people’s lives. For example, a lot of people, especially the elderly are saved by the vaccination for COVID-19 from the U.S. Without a good relationship with the U.S and the vaccination from U.S, there would be huge casualties of COVID-19. 

 For the three reasons mentioned above, I think we can say with confidence that Japan should enhance its relationship with the U.S. 

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アメリカ国旗
英検1級英作文サンプル 日本はアメリカとの関係を見直すべき?

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先進国は移民を推進すべき?

Should developed nations encourage immigration from other countries?

 Some people say that developed countries should not encourage immigration because it makes the countries unstable. However, I think advanced nations should encourage immigration from other countries for the following three reasons. 

 First, without immigration, the population in developed countries will decline. For example, Japan is now facing rapid population decrease due to low fertility rate and elderly society. The Japanese government thinks that without immigration, it is impossible to maintain its population and economic power as the third economically biggest country in the world.

 Second, a lot of the young people are needed in most developed countries to support medical insurance and pension for the elderly. Most of the developed countries are experiencing an elderly society and increasing social costs to support them. Now it is such a big burden for the young generation that most of them cannot afford to have their families.

 Third, diversity makes new ideas and innovations. For example, the United States has encouraged migration for a long time and cherished diversities. As a result, innovative technology and companies have been invented by them like Steve Jobs and Elon Musk.  

For the three reasons mentioned above, I think we can say with confidence that the positive effect of immigration is quite big and advanced countries should encourage immigration from other countries.     

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本棚と洋書
英検1級英作文サンプル 先進国は移民を推進すべき?

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表現の自由は正当化できるか?

Can restrictions on freedom of speech ever be justified?

Some people say that restrictions on freedom of speech should not be justified because freedom of speech is one of the most important things for democracy to check power. However, I think freedom of speech should be limited for the following three reasons. 

  First, freedom of speech helps spread false information. Recently, fake news is a really serious problem in our society. Sometimes it causes people to act unreasonably. Fake news is not only reported from conventional media such as TV and newspapers but also from Internet media and SNS. This fake news must be prohibited.

  Second, it will cause discrimination. Our society is well connected due to globalization and people with different races, cultures and religions live together. As a result, current world is vulnerable for discrimination that minority tend to be taken by majority. Freedom speech is sometimes used as an excuse for those discriminations.

  Finally, freedom of speech will eventually polarize society. Now, it is apparent that the media has its own position such as conservative or liberalism. To support political groups that they like, each media criticizes relentlessly the opposite political group and exaggerates that the opponent groups are like enemies.  As a result, chaos and conflicts will occur. For example, recently the U.S. experienced severe political polarization, which caused riots in Washington.

  For the three reasons mentioned above, I think we can say with confidence that freedom of speech is harmful and should be limited.

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ノートの文字
英検1級英作文サンプル 表現の自由は正当化できるか?

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日本で死刑を禁止すべきか?

Should the death penalty be banned in Japan?

Some people say that the death penalty in Japan should be continued to compensate for criminal acts. However, I think it should be banned for the following three reasons. 

 First reason is that death penalty is the cruel and inhumane punishment. Even though criminals commit serious crimes, they also have human rights. Most of developed countries have regarded the capital punishment as invading human right and already banned it. Japan should also rethink the importance of the human right of criminals.

 Second reason is that there is a possibility that the perpetrator will be rehabilitated. During serving in prisons, instead of the capital punishment, they understand what is right or wrong and might be completely rehabilitated. It is highly likely that they will rejoin and contribute to our society.

 Third reason is that there were some cases of people who were innocent but arrested for committing serious crimes. If they are wrongly imprisoned, they can be released from prison and given compensation. However, if wrongful execution were done, it would never be righted.    

 For the three reasons mentioned above, I think we can say with confidence that the death penalty should be prohibited in Japan. The Japanese government has to convince their citizens to understand the value of human rights. 

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刑務所の窓
英検1級英作文サンプル 日本で死刑を禁止すべきか?

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民主主義を非民主主義国家に広げるべきか?

Should democratic nations actively promote the spread of democracy to nondemocratic nations?

   Some people say that democratic nations are not good for peace and stability because of the recent democratic movement and chaos called Arab spring. However, I think democratic is quite beneficial for citizens and should be promoted to nondemocratic nations for the following three reasons. 

   The first reason is that democratic nations have been more prosperous than nondemocratic nations historically. For the past several decades, democratic countries have been prosperous and most people living there could pursue their happiness. On the other hand, people in non democratic countries have been struggling in their lives. 

   The second reason is that democratic nations can avoid conflicts in their countries and that results in their stability. Democracy can make their nationals choose what they want to by using selection. As a result, people wisely unite themselves. However, in nondemocratic nations, people tend to decide depending on powers and weapons. That results in conflicts. 

   The third reason is that in non democratic nations, dictators dominate a country's wealth. For example, in North Korea, a leader exploits his citizens and people have been suffering from severe food shortages for a long time. In order to make the people happy, dictatorship should be eliminated. 

   For the three reasons mentioned above I think we can say with confidence that democracy should be promoted to be spread to non-democratic countries as much as possible.

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民主選挙
英検1級英作文サンプル 民主主義を非民主主義国家に広げるべきか?

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世界平和は達成可能な目標か?

Agree or disagree: World peace is an achievable goal

  Some people say that world peace is an achievable goal. However, I think that the world will experience more conflicts, wars and terrorist’s attacks and we will not see world peace for the following three reasons.

  The first reason is rapid population growth. The world’s population is growing and will reach around 10 billion by 2050. Our planet cannot sustain such a great number of people. In the future, many people, especially in developing countries, will be suffering from starvation. This situation will lead to conflicts.

  The second reason is climate change. Because of global warming, the world’s temperature will continue to increase. Then, we will experience extreme weather such as drought and floods. Farms will become barren wastes. As a result, the global food supply is likely to diminish. These food shortages aggravate the situation of suffering from population growth. This poverty will cause wars in the future.

  The third reason is globalization. The world becomes connected due to globalization. People can easily move to other countries. This will lead to the situation where many people of different races and cultures live together. In this circumstance, there will be a lot of discrimination against minorities. International terrorism related to discrimination might increase.

  For the three reasons mentioned above, I think we can say with confidence that the world cannot achieve peace. International cooperation and supporting developing countries are more needed.

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海岸
英検1級英作文サンプル 世界平和は達成可能な目標か?

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化石燃料はエネルギーの主役であり続けるか?

Will fossil fuels such as oil and gas still be the world's main source of energy in the coming decades?

   Some people say that fossil fuels such as oil and gas will still be the world's main source of energy in the coming decades. However, I think renewable energy can eradicate conventional energy resources soon for the following three reasons.

   First, governments have supported the development of alternative energy resources. Due to global warming, we are now experiencing extreme weather like floods and drought. In order to solve these problems, huge amounts of investment have flowed into research of renewable energy by governments. As a result, it is highly likely that alternative energy will replace fossil fuels.

   Second, the cost of renewable sources is declining rapidly. Recently huge scale solar panel farms and wind turbine generation factories are installed in U.S. and European countries. This leads to reduced costs of electricity. Some reports said that costs of renewable energy will become less expensive than that of conventional energy soon.

   Finally, a large battery storage was invented, and it could solve the instability of renewable energy. Now it is already common to use large battery storages to store the electricity that is generated from solar panel farms because of the development of the large size battery storage. There are no concerns that renewable energy is unstable.

   For the three reasons mentioned above I can say with confidence that fossil fuels will no longer be used as energy sources in the near future.

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油田
英検1級英作文サンプル 化石燃料はエネルギーの主役であり続けるか?

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国際的テロリズムは排除できるのか?

Can international terrorism ever be eliminated?

Some people say that advanced technology has solved poverty, which is one of the root causes of terrorisms. However, I think that modern technology that causes population growth, climate change and globalization will make the world poorer and head towards other global international terrorism.


The first reason is rapid population growth. The world’s population is growing and will reach around 10 billion by 2050. Our planet cannot support such a great number of people. In the future, a lot of people, especially in developing countries, will be suffering from starvation. Poverty will likely cause terrorism as history has proven.

The second reason is climate change. Because of global warming, The world’s temperature will continue to increase. Then, we will experience extreme weather such as drought and floods. Farms will become barren wastes. As a result, the global food supply is likely to diminish. These food shortages aggravate the situation of suffering from population growth.

The third reason is globalization. The world becomes connected due to globalization. People can easily move to other countries. This will lead to the situation where many people of different races and cultures live together. In this circumstance, there will be a lot of discrimination against minorities. International terrorism caused by discrimination might increase.

For the three reasons mentioned above, I think we can say with confidence that the world cannot eradicate terrorism. Rather, it will experience more international terrorists in the future.

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岩場に立つ兵士
英検1級英作文サンプル 国際的テロリズムは排除できるのか?

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クローン技術の開発を促進するべきか

Should cloning research be promoted, or should it be discontinued?

Some people say that cloning research should be stopped because of its ethical issues. However, I think it should be promoted for the following three reasons. 

  First, cloning technology will help endangered species and resurrect extinct species. Due to human activities and global warming, many species are nearly extinct. Using their tissue and cloning technology, they are saved from extinction. Also, if we got available tissue of extinct animals, it would be possible to resurrect them.

  Second, cloning can solve future shortage of food supply. In 2050, the human population will reach ten billion. It is highly likely that a lot of people will struggle not only in developing countries but also in advanced countries. Cloning technology can increase cultivation of crops enormously and meet future food demand. 

  Third, this technology contributes to medical applications. Internal organs are produced from one tissue with cloning technology. A lot of patients who need organ transplant will get their own organs and be cured completely from this technology. It does not cause any transplant rejection that is common when they get the donor's organs. Thus, their quality of life after surgery will be much better. 

For those reasons mentioned above, I think we can say with confidence that cloning research is quite beneficial for humans and our environments and should be encouraged.

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製作中の薬
英検1級英作文サンプル クローン技術の開発を促進するべきか

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都市化は日本社会にプラスの影響を与えるのか

Has urbanization had a positive effect on Japanese society?

 Some people say that urbanization is not beneficial for our society because it can destroy the environment. However, I think it had a positive effect on not only our society but also the environment for the following three reasons.

 First, urbanization improves the convenience of our life. Due to urbanization, a lot of people live in narrow areas like Tokyo. Transportation systems such as the subway will be developed for huge demand from many residents. As a result, people don’t need to buy cars and can move anywhere in the city by public transformation system.

 Second, economic effects become larger as cities get urbanized. In the cities, there are a lot of big company offices and a lot of people hired and worked in big companies. This will lead to an increase in productivity and make people and municipalities richer. This economic effect of one city is much larger than tons of local villages.

 Third, urbanization is rather good for the environment. In urban cities people tend to use less energy because they don’t need to drive a car. This is beneficial not only for preventing the greenhouse effects and but also for eliminating contaminated gas like NOx. People there can live without the concern of having asthma.

 For the three reasons mentioned above, I think we can say with confidence that urbanization had a positive effect on Japanese society. 

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大都市とビル
英検1級英作文サンプル 都市化は日本社会にプラスの影響を与えるのか

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世界の食料供給は今後数十年で確立されるか

Can the global food supply be ensured in the coming decades?

 Some people say that global food shortage will be solved. However, I think that human activities that cause population growth, climate change and pollution will make it harder to ensure the global food supply especially in developing countries.  

 The first reason is rapid population growth. The world’s population will reach around 10 billion by 2050. Our planet cannot sustain such a great number of people. In the future, a lot of people, especially in developing countries, will be suffering from severe food shortage. 

 The second reason is climate change. Because of global warming, The world’s temperature will continue to increase. Then, we will experience extreme weather such as drought.  As a result, the global food supply is likely to diminish. These food shortages aggravate the situation of suffering from population growth.

 The third reason is pollution. Developing countries where most citizens can not get enough food, focuses on their development rather than the environment. Therefore, pollution will  be a serious problem for them. Soil is contaminated by toxic chemicals from plants. People eat contaminated foods and will have health problems.

 For the three reasons mentioned above, I think we can say with confidence that the global food supply can’t be insured. Japan has to introduce its environmental technology to developing countries.   

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穀物畑
英検1級英作文サンプル 世界の食料供給は今後数十年で確立されるか

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自由貿易の長所は短所を上回っているか?

Do the benefits of free trade outweigh the disadvantages?

Some people say that free trade is beneficial for our society because competition of companies around the globe will become harder and consumers will enjoy a result such as low-cost products with high quality. However, I don’t think it is not beneficial for our society and its demerit is rather harmful for the following three reasons. 

First, free trade will cause environmental concerns indirectly. As competition becomes higher caused by free trade, companies cannot pay attention to the environments to make money. As a result, it is highly likely that companies will lead to contamination of the environment and locals will suffer. 

  Second, free trade will destroy local businesses. Without tariffs, it is quite hard for local small companies to compete with big international companies from abroad. That will bring a lot of bankruptcies of local businesses and many people will lose their jobs. As a result, economic growth in some countries will be enormously exacerbated.

  Finally, tradition and culture in some areas will also be eradicated as well. Small businesses are closely related to tradition and culture, which have been fostered for a long time. Free trade will lead to devastation of local identity which is too valuable to be evaluated.

  For the three reasons mentioned above, I think we can say with confidence that free trade will destroy local communities, which have been supported by their environment, economics, and culture and that cannot be compensated by its benefit. 

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船とコンテナ
英検1級英作文 自由貿易の長所は短所を上回っているか?

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マスメディアは社会に有益な効果をもたらすか

Does the mass media have a beneficial effect on society?

Some people say that the mass media is quite beneficial for our society to check authority. However, I think the mass media does not have a beneficial effect on society for the following three reasons.

First, mass media is strongly influenced by sponsors. Mass media role is not only reporting what is happening right now but also advertising some products of their sponsors. Therefore, their reports are sometimes wrong and have bad effects on our society. 

Second, the mass media itself has some political positions and they are biased. For example in Japan, public opinion surveys such as the supporting ratio for the current government varies widely depending on the media, which reports. Even worse, they report it as if it was fairly investigated. That may possibly manipulate citizens' way of thinking.

Third, they invade privacy. In order to get the truth for them, the mass media relentlessly investigate and report not only their main targets, who cause some incidents and troubles but also families, who have nothing to do with them. Even though the mass media have been criticized for invading public privacy, their attitude has not changed. 

For the three reasons mentioned above, I think we can say with confidence that the mass media are not beneficial for our society.

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メディア用ビデオカメラ
英検1級英作文サンプル マスメディアは社会に有益な効果をもたらすか

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重大犯罪を犯した未成年は成人と同じ刑を受けるべきか?

Should minors who commit serious crimes receive the same punishments as adults?

Some people say that minors who commit serious crimes should receive the same punishment as adults. However, I think minors should not take the same punishment for the following three reasons.

First reason is that the mental maturity of young people is not enough. Minors sometimes commit crimes due to lack of understanding whether something is wrong or not. They can be easily rehabilitated and rejoin society when they just get older and have sufficient mental maturity.  

Second reason is that schooling is much better than prison for young criminals. If they are punished and isolated in the prison, they will not have enough opportunities to communicate with a lot of people and learn social skills, which is required to be fully rehabilitated. Schooling will help them develop their mental maturity. 

Final reason is that punishing young criminals causes huge financial costs. If minors who committed a serious crime have to serve in prison for a long time, a lot of money is needed to support their life. If they get rehabilitated soon, they can contribute to our society by paying tax money, pension money and medical insurance.  

For the three reasons mentioned above, I think we can say with confidence that minors who commit serious crimes should not get the same punishment as adults. Rather, they should be allowed to get a chance to join society again. 

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刑務所のベッド
英検1級英作文サンプル 重大犯罪を犯した未成年は成人と同じ刑を受けるべきか?

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 多国籍企業は今日の世界でポジティブな役割を担っているか?

Do multinational corporations play a positive role in today’s world?

Some people say that multinational corporations play a positive role in today’s world because they seek productivity by using global subsidiaries and as a result, consumers can enjoy low-cost products. However, I think they are not beneficial for our societies and rather, they are harmful in many ways. 

   First, jobs especially in developed countries will be reduced. Multinational companies can easily move their factories, offices and their suppliers to developing countries. That will lead to loss of job opportunities in advanced countries. It is impossible for people there to enjoy the low products of big international companies, which are from foreign countries, without money.  

   Second, governments and municipalities cannot get enough and stable tax revenue from multinational corporations. For example, IT giants like Amazon and Apple can avoid huge corporation tax payments by using their subsidiaries even though they benefit from people in developed countries. Citizens there cannot get public service because their municipalities don’t have sufficient tax payments from those companies. 

   Finally, multinational companies tend to seek just their maximum benefit and tend not to think about the environment of developing countries. For example, it was reported that foreign subsidiaries of Apple that produced Apple’s products cause severe environmental contamination. It seems they are harmful for developing countries even though  they make job opportunities.

   To conclude, I think that multinational companies are rather harmful not only in developed countries where they are from but also in developing countries.

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ビルと空
英検1級英作文サンプル 多国籍企業は今日の世界でポジティブな役割を担っているか?

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日本の低い出生率に、さらなる対策が必要か

Does more need to be done to address Japan's low birthrate?

  Some people said that it is no concern that the population in Japan is declining, because population is not a concern to maintain Japan. However, I think the decreasing population is a serious problem for Japan to remain independent and more needs to be done to increase it for the following three reasons. 

   First reason is that population reduction will ratchet down the power of the country. As the population declines, people who support the economy of Japan also decline. Because the country cannot get enough tax payment from citizens, it is harder for Japan to maintain independence from escalating military pressure from China. 

   Second reason is that the increasing elderly population will worsen the situation explained above. Now the younger generation is suffering from heavy tax payment and medical insurance for the increasing elderly population. As a result, young people can’t plan to make their families. That will exacerbate Japan’s low birthrate.

   Final reason is that government assistance for the younger generation is quite low compared to the elderly. Politicians have to be selected to work as a politician, that is why they tend to make a policy that will be helpful for the old generation, who occupy the population. Strong assistance to young people is required to increase population. 

   For the three reasons mentioned above, I think I can say with confidence that the Japanese government’s measure against low birthrate is insufficient.

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赤ちゃんの手
英検1級英作文サンプル 日本の低い出生率に、さらなる対策が必要か

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宇宙探索を続けるべきか?

Agree or disagree: Space exploration should be continued

  Some people say that space exploration should be continued because in the future, our planet can not sustain our lives and it will be needed to find places where humans can live. However, I think it should not continue for the following three reasons.  

   First, it requires huge investment. For example, launching a space shuttle requires at least 10 billion yen and we often experience failure. Of course, we have learned something from the failure but it is too expensive to pay. 

   Second, space exploration may result in wars. Recently space exploration competitions have become harder between major nations such as the U.S. China and Russia. This is the same as the cold war to make their territory bigger. That may lead to a real war between them.  

   Finally, there are other problems that humans have to deal with rather than space technology. For example, global warming is a serious threat to our society. We will experience extreme weather such as floods and drought due to global warming. Without solving it would not live on the earth.

   For the three reasons mentioned above, I think we can say with confidence that space exploration should be stopped. Governments have to focus on other problems that is really needed to solve as soon as possible.

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地球
英検1級英作文サンプル 宇宙探索を続けるべきか?

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世界の水の需要は将来解消されるのか

Can the global demand for water be met in the future?

 Some people say that global water shortage will be solved. However, I think that human activities that cause population growth, climate change and pollution will make it harder to meet the global water demand especially in developing countries.  

 The first reason is rapid population growth. The world’s population will reach around 10 billion by 2050. Our planet cannot sustain such a great number of people. In the future, a lot of people, especially in developing countries, will be suffering from severe water shortage. 

 The second reason is climate change. Because of global warming, The world’s temperature will continue to increase. Then, we will experience extreme weather such as drought.  As a result, the global water supply is likely to diminish. These water shortages aggravate the situation of suffering from population growth.

 The third reason is pollution. Developing countries where most citizens can not get enough water, focuses on their development rather than the environment. Therefore, pollution will  be a serious problem for them. People can not get cleaned water and will have health problems caused by polluted water. 

 For the three reasons mentioned above, I think we can say with confidence that the global water demand can’t be met. Japan has to introduce its environmental technology to developing countries. 

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水
英検1級英作文サンプル 世界の水の需要は将来解消されるのか

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世界の水の需要は将来解消されるのか

Can the global demand for water be met in the future?

 Some people say that global water shortage will be solved. However, I think that human activities that cause population growth, climate change and pollution will make it harder to meet the global water demand especially in developing countries.  

 The first reason is rapid population growth. The world’s population will reach around 10 billion by 2050. Our planet cannot sustain such a great number of people. In the future, a lot of people, especially in developing countries, will be suffering from severe water shortage. 

 The second reason is climate change. Because of global warming, The world’s temperature will continue to increase. Then, we will experience extreme weather such as drought.  As a result, the global water supply is likely to diminish. These water shortages aggravate the situation of suffering from population growth.

 The third reason is pollution. Developing countries where most citizens can not get enough water, focuses on their development rather than the environment. Therefore, pollution will  be a serious problem for them. People can not get cleaned water and will have health problems caused by polluted water. 

 For the three reasons mentioned above, I think we can say with confidence that the global water demand can’t be met. Japan has to introduce its environmental technology to developing countries. 

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水
英検1級英作文サンプル 世界の水の需要は将来解消されるのか

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世界の貧困をなくすことはできるのか?

Agree of disagree: World poverty can be eliminated

Some people say that advanced technology has solved poverty. However, I think that modern technology that causes population growth, climate change and globalization will make the world poorer and poverty will increase in the future. Let me explain three reasons.

The first reason is rapid population growth. The world’s population will reach around 10 billion by 2050. Our planet cannot sustain such a great number of people. In the future, a lot of people, especially in developing countries, will be suffering from starvation and their life will be poorer.  

The second reason is climate change. Because of global warming, The world’s temperature will continue to increase. Then, we will experience extreme weather such as drought and floods. Farms will become barren wastes. As a result, the global food supply is likely to diminish. These food shortages aggravate the situation of suffering from population growth.

The third reason is globalization. The world becomes connected due to globalization. People can easily move to other countries. This will lead to the situation where many people of different races and cultures live together. In this circumstance, there will be a lot of discriminations against minorities. Terrorism related to discrimination might increase and lead to destruction infrastructure. Citizens will struggle to live there.

For the three reasons mentioned above, I think we can say with confidence that world poverty can not be eliminated. 

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貧しい人の手
英検1級英作文サンプル 世界の貧困をなくすことはできるのか?

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現代社会は仕事に重きを置きすぎか

 Is too much emphasis put on work in modern society?

Some people say that today, people don’t need to work too much compared to previous generations. However, I think too much emphasis is put on work in modern society and employees have to face harder work situations recently for the following three reasons.

First, the harsh work conditions make it difficult for people to maintain good family relations. In order to afford to live in today’s society, people have to work longer. That results in the situation where people can’t spend their time with their families even though they live together. 

Second, global competition makes companies require more output from each employee. Due to globalization, the world has become connected. As a result, companies have to compete not only domestic opponents but also foreign corporations across the world. In order to survive, employees are required to achieve more results.

Third, a lot of people are suffering from health problems caused by their work. Recently it is often reported that a lot of people are suffering from depression caused by their work situation. That leads not only to loss of workforce and productivity but also increases medical and work insurance.  

For the three reasons mentioned above, I think we can say with confidence that modern society stresses on work and causes serious problems. The government have to make strict regulation to protect employees’ health.

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悩んでいる男性
英検1級英作文サンプル 現代社会は仕事に重きを置きすぎか

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大学教育は皆に必要か

 Agree or disagree: A college education is necessary for everyone

  Some people say that university education is needed for everyone to get good income. However, I think university education for everyone is not necessary for the following three reasons. 

   First, some people succeed without a college degree. For example, American famous entrepreneurs such as Steve Jobs and Bill Gates made a huge fortune. Both of them haven't graduated from university. They could find their way of life at the early stage of their life and that resulted in big success. University education is not needed.

   Second, some people are not good at studying. It is hard for them to study to get a college degree. If they entered university, it would become harmful for them mentally. They can choose other ways to succeed.  

   Third, some people who used to be smart in high school and graduated from a great university can’t succeed. In this case what they spent in college, such as money and time is meaningless. 

   For the three reasons mentioned above, I think we can say with confidence that everyone doesn’t need to enter university. College education can’t guarantee our success. There are a lot of choices in our lives except getting a college degree, depending on our abilities and interests. 

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図書館
英検1級英作文サンプル 大学教育は皆に必要か

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刑務所は犯罪者を扱うのに効果的な手段か?

 Are prisons an effective way to deal with criminals?

Some people say that prisons are not working to treat criminals. However, I think that prisons are an effective way to deal with criminals for the following three reasons.

First reason is that prisons can prevent crimes that will possibly occur. In prisons, people who commit crimes don’t have freedom. Prisons decide where they live, what they do and what they have. It is highly likely that this severe condition of prisons can suppress future crimes.

Second reason is that prisons are the best system to handle a lot of perpetrators at the same time. It has been developed to rehabilitate criminals effectively for a long time in many countries. That’s why in order to handle them, most countries choose prisons. Without prisons, it is impossible to deal with so many criminals and tax payments to support them are increasing more and more.

Third reason is that prison helps them learn practical skills in their next career. For example, in Japan, criminals are usually dispatched to factories and work there. Through working they learn skills that will help them adapt society after prisons. That is quite beneficial not only for perpetrators but also our societies.

For the three reasons mentioned above, I think we can say with confidence that prisons are an effective way to deal with criminals.

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刑務所
英検1級英作文サンプル 刑務所は犯罪者を扱うのに効果的な手段か?

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 国際的スポーツイベント開催はデメリット上回る?

 Do the benefits of hosting international sporting events outweigh the disadvantages?

 Some people say that hosting international sporting events such as the Olympics and World Cup is quite beneficial. However, I think holding sports events cannot outweigh the disadvantages such as initial costs, maintenance costs for the following three reasons.

   The first reason is that preparation of the events will need additional tax payment from citizens. For example, to hold the Olympics, new sport facilities such as stadiums and gymnasiums are required. These initial costs are too huge and will likely be a huge burden for people.

   The second reason is that maintenance costs for the above facilities will be economically burdensome on locals. For example, Nagano city has been suffering huge debts for maintenance after the Nagano Olympic Games.

   The final reason is that the beneficial effects of holding international sport competitions are too small to pay off all costs mentioned above. During the events, the host city attracts many people around the world. However, that cannot continue forever. After the international events, all the economic benefits will diminish. It is difficult to fully compensate for all the preparation and maintenance costs.

   For the three reasons mentioned above, I think we can say with confidence that hosting international sporting events cannot outweigh disadvantages.

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オリンピック
英検1級英作文サンプル 国際的スポーツイベント開催はデメリット上回る?

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 日本は国際情勢に対し大きな役割を担うべき?

Should Japan play a bigger role in international affairs?

   Some people say that Japan should focus on its domestic problems rather than international problem. However I think Japan should play a bigger role in international affairs for the following three reasons.

   First, nuclear disarmament involving many countries should be done. Now, nuclear weapons are spreading. India, Pakistan, North Korea and Israel are likely to have nukes even though international efforts to ban them have been made for several decade. Japan, which is the only country to know the true danger of nuclear bombs, must reduce the number of nuclear weapons.

   Second, Japan should lead the environmental problems, which are getting worse and worse. Environmental issues, especially global warming, are quite serious. The world is experiencing extreme weather such as drought and flood. In the future it is more likely that food and water supply will diminish in many countries. As one of the biggest countries to lead the environment technologies, Japan is required to contribute to these problems by making a practical international network to reduce CO2.

   Finally, terrorism is also one of the biggest problems, which need new leader. The U.S. has interfered with the middle east for a few decades. However, the situation has not improved. Rather, some countries such as Afghanistan became unstable. Japan has had good relationships with middle east countries thus Japan can help these countries be stable in order to eliminate terrorism.

   To conclude, Japan should more contribute to international issues.

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地球儀
英検1級英作文サンプル 日本は国際情勢に対し大きな役割を担うべき?

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